DSLR Basic Settings Tutorial – Photography/Videography 101 with Steve DiCasa

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hey guys what’s going on Steve decosta
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here and welcome to another dick Casas
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film tutorial this one’s going to be a
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basic photography 101 lesson filmmaking
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101 videography 101 you’ve never touched
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a camera before this is the tutorial for
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you many times I’ve been on shoots
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especially around Fashion Week or
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especially around just a time where
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there’s a lots of videographers and
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photographers at the same place and
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people have looked over my shoulder and
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said wow that looks great what are your
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settings and my settings according to my
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own mind are just just proper what they
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should be just to get a good exposure
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and it occurred to me that people might
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be looking at the back of their screen
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and fiddling with dials and they just
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seen numbers on the screen they don’t
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really know what those numbers represent
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so this tutorial is going to be about
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what those numbers are what they do and
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how to get a great shot somebody who
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grabs a camera for the first time and
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just fiddling with the knobs just does
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their best or puts it on auto and they
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can run into a lot of problems on auto
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mode especially if like something’s
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really bright and the iris it down you
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can’t see someone’s face a lot of crazy
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things can happen and it behooves you to
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learn the settings of the camera right
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now I’m using a DSLR this is 5d mark ii
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that i’m going to be demonstrating with
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i’m shooting it right now on a 5d mark 3
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and i got the 60 day way up there in the
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back but these tips and techniques go
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for any camera 35 millimeter film camera
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basically you’re just gonna be learning
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the parts of the camera and how to get a
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good exposure it’s gonna work for any
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camera you have this tutorials going to
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be in a lecture kind of style i have a
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whiteboard behind me i feel like i’m in
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a classroom so but i’m gonna try to keep
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it interesting keep it entertaining so
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grab a cup of coffee grab a notepad take
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some notes and let’s have some fun and
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let’s learn how to take some photos so
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let’s get started
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so to start off the thing that you
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should know is that the goal of every
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photographer is to get a proper exposure
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that is what we’re looking to do a
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proper exposure what you’re looking at
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right now is properly exposed what’s a
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bad exposure
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well this exposure is a little too dark
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needs to be brighter alternately
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this exposures a little too bright needs
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to come down a little there we go
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so you see what I’m saying obviously
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it’s important without a proper exposure
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you don’t have usable footage or you
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don’t have a usable photograph so with
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any photographer with any videographer
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you need to have something that’s usable
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and for the most part if you get a
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proper exposure in post you can tweak
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things you know you have something to
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work with basically the light that’s
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coming in and hitting the sensor is
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proper you can work with it later
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there’s data there like you could have
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noticed that when I went to a very
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bright exposure you can see a lot of
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details in the camera and stuff that’s
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pretty cool in other words this part of
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the frame right here is a little dark
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but in terms of what we’re going for in
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post we can always bring that data
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that’s there in the black we can always
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bring that up if we wanted to but when
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you’re exposed to dark none of that was
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recorded you can’t bring any of that
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back and if you’re exposed to bright all
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of the images you saw on my face was too
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bright there’s there’s no way to bring
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that back so that’s one really important
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thing you got to know about photography
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if you’re too bright it’s that the
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information is not there you can’t bring
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it back and post if you’re too dark
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same thing information is just not there
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in the sensor and it going back to film
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the if you over expose the film it’s
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just little bits of you know grain in
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the film you couldn’t do anything to
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bring that back no matter what you did
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to the film you couldn’t bring it back a
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photographer or videographer is usually
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working with their stuff in post and
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usually trying to make it look even
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better later on so you don’t have to
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worry about that when you’re shooting
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you just have to worry about getting a
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proper exposure
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so how do you get a proper exposure
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there are three things that you can
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change in the camera that affect your
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exposure how bright a hard dark the shot
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is those three things are called
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the f-stop f-stop is also known as your
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aperture the second thing is called the
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shutter speed and the final thing is
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called the ISO it’s also called the
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aasa’ depending on how far back you go
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plots of film cameras where a SI but
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what this are referring to really is the
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light sensitivity it’s referring to the
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light sensitivity of the sensor and
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we’ll get to that later it’s kind of
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confusing to just hear it out of the
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blue like this so before we move on
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let’s just turn on our camera right here
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and show you where those numbers are so
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I have the 5d hooked up to a monitor
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what you’re seeing on the monitor is
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just what would be on the back of the
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LCD screen this number right here refers
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to the shutter speed this number right
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here refers to the f-stop and this
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number over here the one next to the
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word ISO refers to the ISO so that’s
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where they are and on any camera they
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should be somewhere on the screen when
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you’re shooting or right before you’re
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shooting before I break down these
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things let’s go through the anatomy of
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the camera so here’s my crudely drawn
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picture of the camera this is the camera
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body and this is the lens
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now these cameras are called DSLR what
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that stands for is digital single-lens
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reflex so it’s your digital single-lens
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reflex now what does that mean single
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lens reflex well some cameras there many
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different kinds of cameras DSLRs are the
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most popular but some cameras had
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multiple lenses you might have
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remembered the disposable cameras they
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had a little viewfinder right here that
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you look through and then this was the
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lens sometimes when you’re up close on
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something with one of these disposable
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cameras you take a picture and the
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picture turns out to be like if you take
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a picture of a flower it turns out that
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that you only got part of the flower if
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the picture didn’t turn out the way you
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wanted you wanted the picture to be this
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beautiful flower like this well that’s
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not that beautiful but you wanted the
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picture to be centered like this but you
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ended up getting the
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shitty like side of it that’s because
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the viewfinder that you were looking
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through and the lens were parallax they
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weren’t focusing on the same thing if
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you look through here and frame through
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this window the lens is not seeing what
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you’re seeing through the window
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in other words the light that was coming
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into the lens was going straight to the
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film or straight to the sensor the light
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that comes into this little window was
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going to your eye so what you saw here
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was not what the lens saw is basically
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what I’m saying what you saw in the u
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Finder window of those old cameras was
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not what the lens was seeing that’s
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called parallax these type of cameras
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are called range finders they still
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exist they’re still around but they’re
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old-school
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obviously you want an accurate picture
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you want to see what’s going to strike
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the lens you want to know exactly the
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framing you’re getting and that’s what
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you get with a DSLR how how does this
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work well light comes in the lens right
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it goes and it goes through the lens and
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it gets focused and then it gets
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projected out the back now right now in
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the DSLR camera there’s a mirror this
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mirror is sitting kind of like this it’s
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at a 45 degree angle behind the mirror
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are two things there’s a shutter this
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guy is the shutter and then there’s the
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sensor this guy is the sensor I’ll talk
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about that a minute so the light comes
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in the lens and it hits this mirror so
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this is a mirror let’s use a different
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color to demonstrate this light comes in
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goes into the lens gets focused when it
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comes out the other side and it hits
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this mirror the mirror bounces the
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mirror bounces the light up to another
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mirror that’s here
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the light then bounces off this mirror
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and goes to your eye so that’s the
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reflex that it’s talking about it’s
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reflecting the light from them from the
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lens to a mirror up to another mirror
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and then right into your eye so when you
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look through the viewfinder of the
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camera the light that’s hitting your eye
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is the light that’s going to hit the
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sensor that’s the light that’s going to
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make the image now what happens when you
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take a picture you take a picture you
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hit the shutter release button what
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happens is this mirror moves up and gets
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out of the way that’s the first thing
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that happens as the mirror moves up the
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second thing that happens is the shutter
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opens now as the shutter look like
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here’s what the shutter looks like
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now those shutter is this weird sort of
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accordion door that’s in the camera you
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could take this and turn it that’s sort
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of how we’re looking at it now what ends
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up happening is these little flaps move
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out of the way at speeds that are
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retarded and they basically move out of
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the way and make a line to the sensor
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and the sensor is sitting behind it so
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the first thing that happens in mirror
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moves up second thing that happens as
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the shutter opens when the shutter opens
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the light is exposed to the sensor now
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the sensor is what makes the image the
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sensor is this cool little digital thing
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that’s inside the camera that is
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sensitive to light it turns every little
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pixel of that sensor turns the light
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into a one or a zero and it makes an
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image that’s just how it works it’s a
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light sensor so to recap light comes in
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through the lens hits a mirror hits the
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other mirror goes to your eye when you
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take a photo the mirror moves up out of
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the way the shutter opens and the light
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hits the sensor for a certain amount of
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time that’s what makes the picture when
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this is all done mirror moves back down
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and the light is redirected to your eye
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so I’m going to demonstrate this to
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prove you that I’m not full of so
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check it out you can see in the
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viewfinder here that my hand is coming
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through the shot you can see so here’s
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my loop here’s my fingers the light
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that’s coming into the lens is coming
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out of the viewfinder you put your eye
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to here
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you can see what’s through the lens now
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when you take a picture you’ll see it
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got black for a second for that second
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well not a second but for that fraction
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of a second that there was black that
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was the mirror moving up and the shutter
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inside opening let’s do it again hey
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kids don’t try this at home but I’m
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going to demonstrate to you guys I took
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the lens off you can see the mirror see
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I put my hand here you can see that it’s
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reflecting if I take a picture you can
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see the mirror moves up out of the way
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getting up close now once again do not
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try this at home you’re not supposed to
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really keep the lens off of the camera
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because dust and crap can get inside so
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don’t do this at home but once again
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check it out now for a split second you
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can see the sensor now if I could move
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the mirror up out of the way I could
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show you the the shutter
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there’s the shutter and you can see the
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the the accordion doors there that’s the
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shutter that’s not the sensor now if I
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were to change the shutter speed to
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something slow here’s will do it for two
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seconds
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you’re going to see the sensor for two
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seconds here we go that’s the sensor
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crazy huh what happens is the mirror
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moves up the shutter opens and it closes
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do not do this at home people I am a
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professional I know what I’m doing so
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that’s how the camera works let’s move
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on to our three variables
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we’re going to start with aperture also
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called the f-stop what is it well this
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is the one thing that is controlled by
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the lens and not by the camera itself
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inside every lens is an aperture an
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aperture as a whole that’s what it is
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it’s a hole so basically what you’re
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doing is you’re adjusting the size of
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that hole I don’t know where inside the
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lens the aperture is it might be here
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might be here I’ve tried to do some
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research about this but it’s hard to
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tell it’s probably somewhere in the back
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but it doesn’t really matter but
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basically inside the lens there’s an
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aperture there’s a hole and what’s
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really cool is the way that they’re
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designed is they’re designed with these
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blades so when you adjust the iris these
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blades in a crazy-cool geometric pattern
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closed or open and what you’re doing is
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you’re controlling how much light is
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entering the lens obviously when the
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aperture is fully open like this you’re
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letting in more light when it’s more
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closed down you’re letting in less light
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so if you’re shooting something that’s
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really bright close the iris down it’s
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going to let in less light you’re going
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to have a proper exposure you’re
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shooting something that’s really dark
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open up the aperture you’re gonna get
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more light I happen to have a really
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cool lens that I can show you these
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things at work I managed to get my hands
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on some Zeiss cp2 lenses these compact
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prime lenses these are amazing this is
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an 85 millimeter now these are cinema
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lenses they have a PL mount on the back
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they don’t go on the DSLR cameras unless
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you have an adapter but I’m not shooting
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with it right now I just want to show
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you the aperture so check it out this
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would be an aperture wide open
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look at that that would be an aperture
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that’s closed down open closed now what
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I’m doing is I’m turning the iris dial
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here open and closed this is a manual
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iris lens now the lenses on the DSLR
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cameras you change the aperture through
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the camera so it’s kind of confusing
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these
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cameras they are smart they speak to the
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lens digitally speaking the camera
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speaks to the lens if I take the lens
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off one more time you can see right here
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there are little metal pins and there
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are little metal pins on the lens itself
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so that sends data from the camera body
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to the camera so when you change the
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aperture that’s what’s going on when you
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change the aperture using DSLRs this is
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what’s happening inside the camera
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what’s unfortunate is that you don’t
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really see it happening so check it out
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I’m changing the aperture you can see
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it’s getting darker but you don’t see
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what’s going on inside the lens inside
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the lens that aperture is getting closed
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or it’s opening so when you’re flipping
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around on the back of this camera here
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and you’re changing the dial and you and
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your image is changing
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you wouldn’t know what’s happening you
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don’t know what’s going on you just know
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that it’s getting darker it’s getting
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brighter well what’s happening with the
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f-stop is that the aperture is getting
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more open or closed it’s kind of
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confusing because you’re changing it on
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the camera itself you’re not changing it
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on the lens so a beginner like yourself
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might think that you’re changing
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something inside the camera body when in
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fact the camera is just sending that
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some information to the lens and the
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lens is changing the aperture by
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changing it here if you were to use a
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manual type iris then you have to change
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it on the lens itself the digital signal
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doesn’t do it for you I thought I’d get
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up close and personal for you guys check
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it out you can see I’m reflecting the
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LED light that I have on the camera
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there so there’s the blades there they
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are now I’m going to open up the
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aperture see those cool blades and we’re
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at work it’s really cool
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so that’s closed down and that’s open
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that’s what’s happening inside the lens
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now to the numbers you saw what happens
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inside the lens the aperture gets bigger
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and smaller but how does that equate to
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numbers what are those settings right
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when the aperture is large it has a
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lower number I don’t know why they do
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that you would think with largeness
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comes bigger numbers that’s not how it
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works
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the larger the opening
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smaller the number think of it this way
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you may have some crazy friends out
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there who have gauges in their ears I
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know I do I mean I live in a city I have
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lots of different kinds of friends I
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have friends who have gauges in their
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ears they stretch their ears and they
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put these earrings that stretch them out
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the smaller those gauges are the bigger
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the number so if someone has a 22 it’s
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pretty small someone has a four it’s
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pretty big so think of it that way
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that’s my mnemonic for it at least it
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was mine mnemonic before I just
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remembered it so when you’re at like a
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2.8 you’re pretty large and when you’re
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at a 22 you’re pretty small so once
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again right here is the twenty two point
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eight could scroll up to four five point
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six eight eleven sixteen and so forth
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and so on so the amount that the
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aperture is open or closed they’re
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referred to as f-stops someone might say
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what f-stop are you at that’s the number
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that the corresponds to the opening of
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the lens DSLR cameras usually by default
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they increase or decrease the f-stop by
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one third of a stop so a full stop let’s
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say 2.8 the full stop to the next f-stop
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would be f4 1 2 3 4 so f4 so that’s one
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stop two point eight four if you want to
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do two stops from two point eight two
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point eight at four five point six
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that’s two stops two point eight four
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five point six that’s two stops now but
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the camera gives you the increments of
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one thirds of a stop so we’re a two
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point eight two point eight and 1/3 two
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point eight and two-thirds full stop now
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we’re at f4 f4 plus one-third f4 plus
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two thirds and F five point six so
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that’s how these cameras usually are
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lots of things in the camera it are done
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by third stops it’s confusing but that’s
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just the way it is this is the language
17:54
that we speak so to keep going F point F
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five point six five point six and
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one-third which is six point three five
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point six and two thirds which is seven
18:03
point one and
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now five point six and three thirds
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which is one stop which is F 8 f8 + 1/3
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F 9 f9 + 1/3 f10 now we’re at a full
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stop f11 we keep going f11 third is 13
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another third is 14 16 is the full stop
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then we’ll continue F 18 F 20 F 22
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that’s the full stop so to show you on
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the Zeiss lens the manual lens you can
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see the f-stop here is two point one
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when we change the aperture we go to two
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point eight next full stop is a f4 f5
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point six f8 f11 f-16 f-22 now you see
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on this lens there’s no third stops if
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you wanted to do somewhere in the middle
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you would just place the iris somewhere
18:55
in the middle so this would be some
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filmmakers call this a 2.8 f4 split or
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you could do two point eight and 1/3 two
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point eight and two-thirds or you know
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two point eight and a half whatever you
19:08
want to call it you know people have
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different words for it but if you were
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exactly two point eight you’d be here if
19:13
you were exactly it to a four you’d be
19:15
here or you can put it somewhere in the
19:17
middle that’s the great thing about
19:18
these lenses is that you can put it
19:19
anywhere you want really dial in your
19:22
f-stop so right about here let’s see
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where that is that is exactly five point
19:28
six so we can open it up a little that’s
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like you know four and a half so you can
19:34
have fun these are really smooth and
19:36
beautiful I hope that demonstrates
19:38
exactly what f-stop is and I think we’re
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going to move on to the next thing but
19:41
before we move on I just want to sort of
19:43
give you a warning that when you change
19:45
your f-stop regardless of getting a
19:47
proper exposure something else can
19:49
happen to your shots something that’s
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artistic or something that you can
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choose to do we’ll get to what that is
19:54
later but just as a note when you change
19:56
the f-stop something happens but
19:58
something it also happened when you
19:59
change the shutter speed and something
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also happens when you change the ISO so
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hopefully I’m getting you interested to
20:06
keep watching
20:10
next thing is shutter speed
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what is shutter speed now you know what
20:16
the shutter is because I’ve showed you
20:18
before what the shutter is so what
20:20
shutter speed is basically is how long
20:26
the shutter is open so basically what
20:29
shutter speed is how long the shutter
20:31
speed is open
20:31
literally the time that that accordion
20:35
door swings open or actually as we saw
20:38
before I was wrong the shutters that
20:40
accordion isn’t sideways it’s vertical
20:45
so basically is how long that shutter
20:48
opens up to expose the light to the
20:51
sensor so what are the numbers mean on
20:53
the camera you can see right here at
20:55
least for a cannon that’s the shutter
20:57
speed but it says 50 what does that mean
20:59
50 what that doesn’t make any sense
21:02
it’s because you have to know that it’s
21:05
not 50 it’s one over the number it’s one
21:10
over 50 so what it is it’s one fiftieth
21:14
of a second that’s what your shutter
21:17
speed is that number just imagine there
21:19
being a 1 over and then that number so
21:22
to demonstrate this you can see one
21:24
fiftieth of a second is pretty quick
21:26
it’s pretty quick but let’s turn lets
21:30
turn just to demonstrate let’s turn the
21:32
shutter down a bit right now we’re going
21:34
to go down to a second take the picture
21:38
one second time literally shutter speed
21:44
is time now at this point in the
21:45
tutorial this is where I kind of have to
21:47
split the information up into two
21:49
sections you have your video guys or
21:52
film guys and then you have your
21:54
photographers watching this tutorial
21:56
let’s go to my photographer friends
21:58
right off the bat now for photos your
22:01
shutter speed matters obviously but you
22:05
have a lot more play with shutter speed
22:07
as a filmmaker we’re sort of stuck to a
22:09
certain shutter speed we can’t really
22:11
mess with it too much unless we’re
22:13
really going for a stylistic look but
22:15
just for the tutorial just for photo the
22:19
faster your shutter speed the faster you
22:21
take your photo
22:22
your shutter speed is obviously the
22:24
shutter is only open for a less and less
22:26
amount of time so if you’re taking a
22:29
photo of somebody moving really quickly
22:30
you might if your intention is to stop
22:34
that person to get a nice clear image of
22:36
that person running or let’s say it’s a
22:38
race car or a horse going by really fast
22:40
if your intention is to stop that person
22:43
until we get a really crystal clear
22:45
image of that person as they’re running
22:47
no blur in other words then you want a
22:49
really fast shutter speed I mean you can
22:51
go up to you know one thousandth of a
22:54
second what does this even go up to if I
22:55
go the fastest one four thousandth of a
22:59
second that’s how fast that the mark the
23:02
mark to can shoot so I mean that’s
23:04
really quick if you’re shooting at one
23:07
for thousands of a second a race car a
23:10
horse it’s going to gonna stop pretty
23:13
pretty dead-on you can have a nice clear
23:15
image now as you as you will know you
23:19
saw when I did it the more times we
23:23
increase the shutter the darker the
23:25
image is going to get so if you’re
23:27
taking a photo and you’re outside and
23:29
it’s really bright maybe adjust the
23:31
shutter now shutter speeds don’t really
23:34
equate to a certain kind of stopped like
23:36
f-stop like F 2.8 F 4 and those numbers
23:39
in the middle are not really stops
23:40
shares being sort of different but on
23:42
DSLR cameras they do increase in thirds
23:46
of a stop so if you go one click down it
23:49
the math in the math is a little bit
23:51
weird so it’s 180th over a second you
23:53
know 1 over 80
23:54
you know 180th of a second we click up
23:56
now it’s one hundredth of a second 125th
23:59
of a second under signe the camera has
24:01
you know different shutter speeds built
24:03
in but just so you know every click is a
24:05
third of a stop so we click more it’s a
24:08
third of a stop
24:09
click click let’s have a little
24:10
experiment here let’s say we’re at
24:12
f-stop five point six and we’re still a
24:14
little too bright we change your f-stop
24:16
and we see oh you know what f/8 looks
24:19
good that’s a whole stop but we like f
24:21
five point six for a certain reason we
24:24
don’t want to change at five point six
24:25
we can change your size feed one two
24:27
three and it should be the exact same
24:29
exposure
24:30
so this shutter speed sixty f5
24:34
six should be the exact same as f4 at
24:40
125 or it should be the exact same at f8
24:43
and shutter speed 32 completely
24:47
different settings but the same exposure
24:48
now this might sound confusing but
24:50
basically it’s just messing with numbers
24:53
if we go you know dark on the f-stop one
24:55
two three and we can go lighter on the
24:58
shutters shutter speed and vice versa if
25:00
we go one two three
25:02
brighter wing go one two three darker on
25:05
the shutter so you basically have a lot
25:07
of play between the f-stop and the
25:09
shutter speed so to continue with the
25:11
photographer’s if you’re looking to stop
25:14
something you want to do a fast shutter
25:16
if you’re looking to purposely blur
25:17
something like let’s say you put the
25:19
camera on a tripod and someone’s running
25:21
by right the camera is on a tripod and
25:24
someone runs by and you take a slow
25:26
shutter the shot will look great and
25:29
that person that’s moving will be
25:31
blurred because the light that’s coming
25:33
in and hitting the lens the shutter is
25:35
open for that full amount of time so
25:37
let’s do an experiment I’m going to use
25:38
this camera right here I’m on a tripod
25:40
so what I did was I shut the camera off
25:42
I changed the shutter speed to one
25:44
second and I changed the aperture all
25:47
the way down to f-22 because since we’re
25:51
open for a second there’s going to be a
25:53
lot of light coming in and we need to
25:55
close the aperture down now I want to
25:57
blur myself so I have to put it at a
25:59
second exposure one second that that
26:02
shutter is open a lot of lights going to
26:04
come rushing in so in order to combat
26:05
that we turn the aperture down I also
26:07
put the ISO down but we haven’t gotten
26:09
to that yet so here’s the picture I’m
26:11
going to set it to the self timer ten
26:13
seconds what I’m going to do is I’m
26:15
going to walk when the shutter goes off
26:17
here we go let’s take a look at the
26:24
picture now you can see that’s me
26:27
that weird blurry thing now I’m going to
26:30
take another one I’m going to take
26:31
another one with the self timer and this
26:33
time I’m just going to wave my hands so
26:37
I’m going to stand still when the
26:38
shutter goes off I’m going to wave my
26:40
hands feel like an idiot
26:47
so let’s take a look at that picture so
26:50
look at that I my face I’m and my shirt
26:53
and my pants and the camera and
26:54
everything else because I’m on a tripod
26:55
that’s clear but look at my hands I’m
26:58
moving them so fast that you can’t even
27:01
see them because I’m blurred now let’s
27:03
do one more and I’m not going to move so
27:05
fast this time I’m going to move my
27:07
hands slowly I’m just going to go like
27:09
this let’s take a look at that one so
27:14
check that out you can see that when the
27:17
shutter is open if something is moving
27:19
with a low shutter speed with a slow
27:21
shutter speed whatever happens while
27:24
that shutter is open that’s going to be
27:26
on the camera and you’re going to see
27:28
that blur now if I take a photo where
27:30
I’m not on the tripod at a second
27:32
exposure watch this look at that shot
27:37
it’s a weird picture you can see where
27:39
the my lights are you can see that
27:41
streaked across the sensor and
27:43
everything else just looks kind of weird
27:44
and dreaming so as you can see you can
27:46
have a lot of fun with shutter speed you
27:48
can do really cool things do weird
27:50
ghosting effects and you can draw with
27:52
light if you have a shutter speed that’s
27:54
really slow I don’t know why I’m still
27:55
looking at that camera should be looking
27:57
at you so that’s four photos but for our
27:59
Senate Agra friends out there watching
28:01
our filmmaker friends moving on to you
28:02
now what do we do for video can’t really
28:06
do the same thing can’t really go by the
28:07
same rules we don’t have a lot of play
28:09
with shutter speed because weird stuff
28:11
can happen now at a high shutter speed
28:13
what ends up happening is this weird
28:14
staccato event out of dispel Cecotto
28:20
when your shutter speed is high you have
28:22
this weird staccato effect what ends up
28:24
happening is there’s this weird like
28:27
thing so let me show it to you so now I
28:32
have this camera set to a four hundred
28:34
shutter speed I’m gonna go crazy you see
28:38
what it looks like I can’t explain it
28:40
it’s like a weird like even though there
28:42
should be some kind of a blur but there
28:44
isn’t there’s no blur nothing so
28:46
everything looks kind of crazy and I
28:48
look crazy too
28:49
now you can go for this kind of look
28:51
you’re like if you watch the beginning
28:53
of Saving Private Ryan and there
28:55
the battlefield and the dirts exploding
28:56
you can see every bit of crap in the
28:58
dirt from the explosions going off
29:00
because they shot that at a fast shutter
29:02
it’s a look it’s a style now at a slow
29:08
shutter speed obviously it’s blurry for
29:13
video for video we’re trying to avoid
29:15
blur now you can see now I’m at a slower
29:17
shutter speed now look at the blur I’m
29:20
moving really fast you can see there’s
29:21
crazy blur see that
29:45
now in a photo it looks cool but in
29:48
video it’s a little too blurry and what
29:50
ends up happening is it tends to be look
29:52
like it looks like a little soft because
29:54
if I’m walking and I’m doing a little
29:55
bit of a movement and there’s a little
29:57
bit of a blur things don’t look sharp
29:59
things don’t look clear so what do we do
30:01
what’s that
30:02
there’s got to be some magic spot that’s
30:04
not too blurry and not too staccato and
30:07
there is that magic spot is called 180
30:11
degrees what the hell does that mean
30:14
it’s basically just trying to emulate
30:16
what the eye sees you’re walking around
30:19
in real life looking at things and when
30:21
car drives past it’s kind of blurry may
30:24
not perceive it to be that way we might
30:25
think that we can see it clearly but if
30:27
you really analyze things and look at
30:30
the cars and planes going by and
30:31
somebody running it does have a little
30:34
bit of a blur to it and 180 degree
30:36
shutter speed or shutter angle is the
30:40
closest approximation to what Ric in
30:43
real life it’s that magic spot how do
30:46
you get the hundred and eighty degree
30:47
shutter on these cameras these cameras
30:50
have these numbers here well I’m going
30:53
to teach you that’s what this for
30:54
tutorial is about to get the hundred
30:56
eighty degree it’s pretty much a formula
30:58
and you have to memorize this formula so
30:59
it depends on your frame rate now we’re
31:02
not going to really get into this but
31:03
you will notice that when you shoot
31:05
video on these cameras there’s different
31:07
frame rates how many frames per second
31:10
standard films most films are shot on 24
31:13
frames per second most TV shows reality
31:17
shows are shot at 30 frames per second
31:19
and a lot of video games and things like
31:22
that are shown in 60 frames per second
31:24
so and also if you’re shooting slo-mo
31:27
you might want to shoot 60 frames per
31:28
second kind of not kind of getting away
31:30
from the basics now and getting into
31:31
sort of more advanced but let’s just
31:33
know there’s 24 frames per second 30
31:38
frames per second 60 frames per second
31:42
and then if you’re in England this
31:44
standard over in England and Europe is
31:46
25 frames per second right now I’m
31:49
shooting this in 24 frames per sec
31:51
so how do we get our 180 degree shutter
31:54
very simple take your frames per second
31:57
times it by to take the number times it
32:01
by 2 you get 48 and then that’s your
32:07
shutter speed now these cameras don’t
32:09
achieve precisely 48 148th of a second
32:14
the closest you can get is 50 150 to the
32:17
7 so at that fraction of a second
32:20
there’s really no difference so 180
32:22
degree shutter on a DSLR at 24 frames
32:26
per second is 50 shot
32:27
that’s why I shoot 150 now if you were
32:31
doing something more for TV not for a
32:33
film you’re doing a TV like a reality
32:34
show and you’re shooting your camera at
32:35
30 frames per second same thing take it
32:38
times by 2 which is 60 your shutter
32:42
speed should be 60 shutter for 180
32:46
degrees and we can keep going 60 frames
32:49
per second if you’re shooting that you
32:50
should do some slow-mo stuff times by 2
32:53
120 120 to the second now these cameras
32:57
do achieve 60 shutter speed of 160th but
33:01
they don’t do 120 the closest is 125 so
33:04
if you are shooting 60 frames a second
33:05
for some reason and you want to do
33:07
hundred eighty degree shutter um you
33:09
want to do 125 and then if you’re in
33:11
jolly old England and you’re shooting at
33:14
25 frames per second obviously that
33:16
times 2 is 50 your shutter speed is 50
33:20
so in a nutshell that’s what you’re
33:22
looking for video guys you’re looking
33:23
for a hundred eighty degree shutter
33:25
unless you’re going for something more
33:27
stylized if you’re shooting an action
33:28
scene or something where you want that
33:30
crazy staccato effect shoot the shutter
33:32
speed up or if you’re looking to blur it
33:34
for some reason I’m sure people can come
33:36
up with an aesthetic reason to blur you
33:38
want to might want to bring it down but
33:39
the DSLR is only go down to one
33:41
thirtieth of a second so it’s not going
33:43
to give you too much blur so I’d say
33:44
it’s your best bet to either be at 180
33:46
degrees or faster for some kind of style
33:48
okay let’s move on
33:52
so we’re on to our last variable ISO
33:56
what is ISO stand for I think it stands
33:59
for the international standardization
34:01
organization or something like that
34:03
basically it’s the company who invented
34:06
the standards does that matter no it
34:08
doesn’t matter at all they’re just
34:09
numbers that refer to light sensitivity
34:11
what is ISO exactly what does that mean
34:14
to be sensitive more sensitive to light
34:16
basically its brightness the higher your
34:19
ISO number the brighter your image will
34:22
get your exposure will get brighter but
34:23
there’s a cost for that brightness and
34:26
that’s grain or what they call noise
34:28
digital noise the more ISO you’re doing
34:32
the more digital enhancing you’re doing
34:34
to the image the more graininess the
34:36
more noise that you’re putting into the
34:38
image here’s an example I’m shooting
34:42
this at 12,800 ISO right now now it’s
34:45
hard to tell because there’s white
34:46
behind me so maybe I can grab something
34:48
dark here’s a tote bag I found you can
34:53
actually where you can see it isn’t in
34:55
my shadows check out the shadows right
34:58
here let’s zoom in so check out the
35:02
shadows at 12,000 ISO it’s really trying
35:07
to enhance the image and it’s making the
35:10
image a lot more greeny let’s move in to
35:14
see the grain it’s digital noise now you
35:21
know what though grain isn’t too much of
35:22
a problem they can add a style if you’re
35:25
looking to do some sort of like crazy
35:27
stylistic very grainy like artsy thing
35:30
then noise is cool and you can you can
35:32
do a lot of cool stuff with this but for
35:34
the most part noise is bad because you’d
35:36
rather add that noise in post you’d
35:39
rather control the noise and the effects
35:42
in post rather than bake it into your
35:45
shot so now I’m shooting at ISO 640 so
35:48
what else about ISO is ISO s can save
35:50
you especially in low-light situations
35:52
if you’re in a really dark area you’re
35:54
going to need to bump up your ISO so
35:56
let’s say I open up my iris to the
35:59
brightest ass it can be this lens goes
36:01
to 2.8
36:03
our speed I want to keep it at my
36:04
hundred eighty degrees so I keep it at
36:05
shutter speed fifty but the ISO at 100
36:09
is a little dark so in order to maintain
36:13
that proper exposure you don’t want to
36:15
be too dark bump up the ISO and you can
36:17
bump it up until you’re happy with your
36:19
shot so ISO becomes really important in
36:21
low-light situations and especially with
36:24
these cameras they’re always saying like
36:25
oh this sensor is really good with high
36:28
ISOs you can barely see the grain every
36:30
new generation of cameras that come out
36:31
have better low-light capabilities and
36:34
what that means is it’s less grainy at
36:36
the higher ISO s like the 5d Mark 3 is
36:38
really good actually you saw a 12,000
36:40
ISO which is very high you’re gonna have
36:42
the same kind of grain as the 5d mark ii
36:44
has at five thousand iso so it’s pretty
36:47
crazy
36:47
now it’s the same exposure level you’re
36:49
still going in one third stops with
36:51
every ISO you jump up it’s still one
36:53
third of a stop one third of a stop one
36:55
third of a stop but from camera to
36:57
camera from 5d mark ii to 5d mark 3 the
37:00
graininess gets less and less it’s the
37:03
technology as it gets better over time
37:04
so for instance on the 5d Mark 3 at
37:06
shutter speed 52.8 and iso 640 it’s
37:10
going to be or let’s say at iso 5000
37:13
it’s going to be you know if you’re in a
37:15
really low light situation at iso 5000
37:17
it’s gonna be pretty grainy now if
37:19
you’re on the 5d Mark 3 at the same
37:21
exact settings it’s going to have the
37:23
same exposure it’s not going to be any
37:24
brighter if the settings are identical
37:26
it’s going to be the same exposure but
37:28
the graininess will be less grainy on
37:30
the mark 3 because it’s a better sensor
37:32
it’s a better camera I prefer the 5d
37:34
mark ii more because it’s sharper but we
37:36
can get into that in another video so
37:40
once again to recap with a higher ISO
37:43
you’re going to get more grain or noise
37:45
but the grain is decreasing as
37:47
technology improves with different
37:48
sensors and the ISO can save you in
37:51
low-light situations when your aperture
37:53
is wide open you get a little bit more
37:55
advanced when it comes to iso’s there’s
37:57
something you should know about native
37:59
ISO so what’s a native ISO when you get
38:01
up to cinema type cameras you’re going
38:03
to find that they have a native ISO and
38:05
what does that mean well for instance
38:07
the red camera has a native ISO of 800
38:09
and what that means is that the sensor
38:11
is designed for 800 pretty much it’s
38:14
locked at 8
38:16
in other words if you expose for things
38:18
while the cameras at 800 if something is
38:21
blown out the sensor is blown out
38:24
there’s no data recovery there whereas
38:26
if you bring the ISO down to like 320 on
38:29
the red and you’re looking at areas that
38:31
are blown out that’s really blown out
38:34
because the camera is set for 800 so at
38:37
320 ISO when things look darker if
38:39
something’s blown out then that’s really
38:41
broke blown out but if it’s at 800 and
38:43
you’re looking at something and it’s
38:44
pretty bright might be blown out you
38:46
might be able to recover some of that
38:47
it’s not completely gone when it comes
38:49
to DSLRs the 5ds and and the 70s they
38:53
have native is OS as well it’s a little
38:56
bit different they have their native ISO
38:59
SR on the 100 the 200 400 800 1600 3200
39:06
those are their native ISO s that’s
39:08
where the sensor is set in where it’s
39:10
designed but it turns out that the ISO
39:14
is one third of a stop below those
39:18
native ones are the cleanest believe it
39:20
or not what’s happening is that at the
39:22
native ISO of 200 when you go a stop
39:25
lower there’s like a digital pull they
39:28
call it that the sensor is pulling away
39:30
some of that grain so it turns out that
39:32
the native ISO is the 100 the 200 400 if
39:35
you go one third of a stop before them
39:38
those native ones they end up being the
39:40
cleanest and clearest the less noisiest
39:43
so when you shoot on the 5d and the 70
39:46
and the 5d Mark 3 you want to try and
39:49
aim for the ISO s that are 163 26:40
39:54
1250 2500 and 5000 they’re the 1/3 stop
40:00
below the natives once again the natives
40:02
are 100 200 400 800 1600 360 400 so once
40:07
again really quick when you’re shooting
40:08
on the Canon DSLRs you want to try and
40:11
keep your ISO s at these what they call
40:13
magic numbers they happen to be the
40:18
cleanest iso’s on the camera
40:22
okay wrapping it up now so there are the
40:25
three things you have your shutter speed
40:27
which equals how long the light is
40:29
hitting the sensor you have your ISO
40:31
which is how sensitive your sensor is or
40:33
how grainy and noisy it is and you have
40:36
your aperture which equals how much
40:38
light is coming in the amount of light
40:40
that’s hitting the sensor now when you
40:42
change each one of these settings like I
40:44
said there’s byproducts which can be
40:46
stylistic choices with the shutter speed
40:49
the byproduct is blur you can make
40:51
something blurry or you can make
40:53
something staccato not so blurry clear
40:55
with ISO it’s simple it’s how grainy it
40:57
is now from my experience you want to
40:59
try and keep the grain to a minimum it’s
41:01
always better to have less grain baked
41:03
into your footage and add some later if
41:05
you want rather than putting it into the
41:07
recording and never being able to remove
41:09
it later but what’s our by-product four
41:13
aperture I didn’t talk about this I
41:14
didn’t talk about it because it opens up
41:16
a huge area and that’s called depth of
41:19
field depth of field is how much from
41:26
the camera to infinity is in focus so
41:29
here’s the camera sitting on a tripod
41:32
and over here’s infinity it’s so far
41:34
away it’s past the camera that’s the
41:37
horizon your depth of field is where
41:41
something starts to be in focus and then
41:44
when something stops to be in focus so
41:46
in between these distances your subject
41:50
or whatever it is that’s there that
41:51
lands within that physical distance away
41:53
from the camera is in focus so if you
41:56
have a deep depth of field you have deep
41:59
focus something let’s say five feet from
42:03
the lens all the way to infinity will be
42:08
in focus so if something is standing if
42:11
a your subject a-anything a car a person
42:16
anything is in between the five foot and
42:18
the infinity range it will be in focus
42:20
and if anything is you know standing
42:23
behind each other some you know Bob
42:26
standing here bill is standing
42:28
here gene is standing here and Douglas
42:32
is standing here everyone will be in
42:35
focus
42:36
that’s called deep focus now what’s the
42:40
opposite of deep shallow focus shallow
42:43
focus would be something that let’s say
42:44
is five feet away from the lens to I
42:47
don’t know seven feet away if your
42:51
subject is standing in that magic spot
42:53
there there in focus if they’re here
42:55
they’re out if they’re there and out you
42:57
know anywhere from here to infinity
42:58
they’re out so something like this would
43:00
be shallow focus and shallow focus can
43:04
get really shallow you can have shallow
43:08
focus that’s so shallow that the tip of
43:10
someone’s nose could be in focus and
43:12
their ear could be out of focus and
43:15
that’s shallow so in a situation like
43:17
this you don’t want to have that shallow
43:19
focus you at least want to have the tip
43:20
of their nose and their ear that all to
43:24
be in focus you don’t want it to be that
43:25
shallow or as I like to call that
43:27
critical so how do you control your
43:28
depth of field so like I was saying
43:30
before depth of field is a byproduct of
43:33
your aperture so here’s how it goes so
43:36
here’s a wide open aperture I’m gonna
43:38
say it’s f/2 and here’s a close down
43:40
aperture let’s say it’s f11 when you’re
43:43
open when your aperture is open you have
43:46
a shallow depth of field when your
43:49
aperture is closed you have a deep depth
43:52
of field now what’s a good way to
43:54
memorize this I like to think of it as a
43:57
telescope or I like to show people this
43:59
cool little trick if you take your hand
44:01
and you close it down so that there’s
44:04
just a little bit of just a little bit
44:08
of a hole just so you can see through a
44:10
little bit you’re just making a tiny
44:11
opening if you put this up to your eyes
44:13
so that there’s just a lady bitty tiny
44:14
hole at the end and you look at
44:15
something very far in the distance that
44:18
thing that you look at will be easier to
44:20
see it’ll be more InFocus what’s
44:22
happening is literally the light has to
44:26
come into this little tiny area and then
44:30
shoot out the back of the lens so once
44:32
again here’s the lens here’s the
44:35
aperture and here’s the hole in the
44:37
aperture when the light has to come in
44:41
and squeeze into a tiny little hole and
44:44
then get projected back out the lens to
44:47
fill the sensor the the light is being
44:51
squished down into a tiny little area
44:53
which means that it’s compressing all
44:56
the photons into that one little spot so
45:00
everything from here to infinity all
45:03
that light has to squish into one little
45:05
tiny area literally getting focused into
45:08
a single point and that achieves your
45:11
deep focus when you have something like
45:13
this the light doesn’t have to squish
45:15
through that small of a hole
45:16
so what’s ending up happening is that
45:19
shallower depth of field when you focus
45:22
on something and you’re trying to get a
45:23
crystal clear shot it’s not going to be
45:26
able to do it because the aperture is
45:27
wide open let’s show you an example now
45:31
what I’m going to do is I’m going to set
45:32
the aperture to be deep focus and I’m
45:35
going to take the picture with the
45:36
camera there and me here and then I’m
45:38
going to take another picture for
45:39
shallow focus you can see the difference
45:41
I’m going to talk to this guy up here so
45:43
I’m going to do deep focus we’re at f-22
45:45
30 shutter I’m going to go way high on
45:48
the ISO let’s do 5,000 so that’s one
45:59
picture at f-22 small aperture and
46:04
that’s the second picture at f/4 so
46:08
let’s look at the difference
46:09
here’s f-22 you can see that the camera
46:12
is in focus and I’m in focus and here’s
46:14
f/4 look at the difference the camera is
46:18
in focus and I’m way out of focus
46:21
look at that now that’s the shallow
46:22
depth of field and then back to the f-22
46:25
shot that’s the deep depth of field so
46:28
you can see when I had it on f-22 small
46:31
hole and a deep focus when I had it on
46:35
f4 large hole shallow depth of field you
46:40
can see the stylistic choices you can
46:43
take and that’s what this is all about
46:44
let’s move on to the next thing
46:49
now you know what all these different
46:51
settings do and now you can concentrate
46:53
on your own style so you saw the
46:55
difference between f-22 and f4 hugely
46:58
different style usually different
47:00
emotion you get out of that one of them
47:02
is deep focus you can see everything the
47:04
other one looked almost cinematic the
47:06
foreground was in focus and I was out of
47:08
focus it looked very cool looked very
47:09
cinematic is that beautiful what they
47:11
call bokeh or bouquet it’s when the
47:14
out-of-focus areas of the frame look
47:17
really beautiful
47:17
it’s called bokeh be okay eh a lot of
47:20
cinematographers love bokeh
47:21
photographers love bokeh it’s those
47:23
out-of-focus areas it’s weird because
47:25
with our human eye we can’t look at
47:27
something that’s out of focus whenever
47:29
we look at something it’s usually in
47:30
focus we can try and put it out of focus
47:32
but that just kind of hurts our heads so
47:34
when we look at a photograph it’s very
47:35
surreal because we can look at things
47:38
that are out of focus and really pay
47:39
attention to the different ways that it
47:41
it blurs into the background it’s really
47:43
interesting really beautiful it’s one of
47:45
the things I love about cinematography
47:46
and cinematography and photography so go
47:48
back to style shutter speed equals blur
47:51
so what’s a style you can accomplish you
47:53
can say okay I want to blur this person
47:56
I want to make sure he looks like a blur
47:58
when he runs by slower shutter speed or
48:01
I want to stop this person I want to do
48:03
a jump and I want to stop him in midair
48:05
well then I know okay fast shutter speed
48:07
so you can start to make your style out
48:09
of this which is so for the most part
48:12
you want to keep the ISO down and you
48:14
keep it less grainy but you might say
48:15
hey let’s make it really dirty really
48:17
grainy let’s up the ISO or you might be
48:19
in a low light situation where you want
48:21
to go I really need to get more
48:23
light I need to get a better exposure
48:25
you bump up the ISO you can still use
48:27
some stylistic choices with it too but
48:29
one of my favorites is the F stumps or
48:31
the aperture and as a by-product
48:34
depth of field here’s where you can get
48:35
really fun here’s where you can get
48:37
really interesting with your depth of
48:39
field choices and doing lots of cool
48:41
stylistic things I know I want to have
48:43
this person in focus I want that person
48:45
out of focus and especially with
48:47
filmmaking if I want to do a focus pull
48:49
from one to the other and I want a
48:51
really nice pull I’ll keep my aperture
48:53
wide open focus it on this one person
48:55
and then at a certain line to the other
48:57
person and boom you’ve got a
48:59
really great style you can choose to do
49:01
things with focus that are only really
49:03
in your head and these settings are how
49:06
you do it and a perfect example of using
49:08
these settings in the right way is to
49:10
just show you what I already did in
49:12
order to get that comparison between the
49:14
depth of field the shallow and the deep
49:15
depth of field I had to move some
49:17
settings around I knew okay
49:19
I want to make sure that it’s a deep
49:22
focus so I know I got to put it on f-22
49:25
and that’s a huge thing about
49:26
cinematography and photography is trying
49:29
to come up with the different style you
49:30
want and locking off one of those three
49:33
variables so I know I want to deep focus
49:36
so I know I needed to have my shutter
49:38
speed at f-22 I had a lock that off so
49:41
that’s locked off now what do I do
49:43
okay well at f-22 the hole is so small
49:46
that there’s very little light so I
49:48
needed to decrease my shutter speed so I
49:52
was down to probably one fifteenth of a
49:55
second maybe even less maybe like one
49:57
eighth of a second it depends this is
49:58
what you can mess with I also knew that
50:00
I had to up my ISO I had to get more
50:02
sensitivity so I was up to like five
50:05
thousand ISO I think I was even higher
50:07
than I might have been at 6400 ISO
50:09
because I was locked off here and then
50:12
the opposite on the shallow
50:13
depth-of-field picture I knew I had to
50:15
go to the maximum aperture and that lens
50:17
goes to f/4 so now I know okay to get
50:20
the shallowest depth of field I can out
50:22
of that lens I’m locked off at f/4 I
50:24
can’t touch f/4 but I’m gonna get that
50:27
great I’m gonna get that great depth of
50:29
field so how do I get a proper exposure
50:31
proper exposure is now that I’m letting
50:33
in so much light it’s really bright so
50:36
now I got a decrease my shutter speed so
50:38
I was at like 1 over 125 I was at maybe
50:42
1 over I remember 250 so I know how to
50:45
increase my shutter speed and with the
50:47
ISO because there was so much light
50:49
coming in I had to bring down my ISO I
50:51
was at 160 or even 100 ISO which is
50:55
great it’s a great product because this
50:57
is also less grainy so I locked off the
51:01
f/4 I achieved great depth of field but
51:04
I had to change this
51:05
and I had to change this and that is how
51:07
you get your proper exposure you you say
51:11
to yourself what do I want to do I want
51:13
to blur this guy I want to make sure
51:14
it’s blurry and deep focus you got to
51:16
ask yourself what kind of shot am I
51:18
looking to get and then once you know
51:21
what you want you lock off one of your
51:23
variables and then and once you lock
51:26
that off and achieve your style then you
51:28
decrease or increase the other ones as
51:31
you see fit to get a proper exposure and
51:36
that my friends is filmmaking and
51:39
photography 101 please let me know if
51:41
there’s anything I missed in this
51:42
tutorial anything you want me to go over
51:44
and I will gladly go over it if you have
51:46
any questions leave them in the comments
51:48
below and I will get back to them this
51:51
tutorial has been a long time coming and
51:53
I put a lot of work into it and I hope
51:54
you guys like it please check out my
51:56
other tutorials and as always happy
51:59
filmmaking peace
52:08
you

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